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Wenceslas Square

One of the city's most historic squares, Wenceslas Square (Václavské nám.) was formerly the horse market (Konský trh). The once muddy swath between the buildings played host to the country's equine auctioneers. The top of the square, where the National Museum now stands, was the outer wall of the New Town fortifications, bordering the Royal Vineyards. Unfortunately, the city's busiest highway now cuts the museum off from the rest of the square it dominates. Trolleys streamed up and down the square until the early 1980s. Today the half-mile-long boulevard is lined with cinemas, shops, hotels, restaurants, casinos, and porn shops.

The square was given its present name in 1848. The giant equestrian statue of St. Wenceslas on horseback surrounded by four other saints, including his grandmother, St. Ludmila, and St. Adalbert, the 10th-century bishop of Prague, was completed in 1912 by prominent city planner J. V. Myslbek, for whom the Myslbek shopping center on Na Príkope was named. The statues' pedestal has become a popular platform for speakers. Actually, the square has thrice been the site of riots and revolutions -- in 1848, 1968, and 1989. At the height of the Velvet Revolution, 250,000 to 300,000 Czechs filled the square during one demonstration.

Prague Castle
According the archeological research and the old written sources it is more likely that the Prague Castle was founded around the year 880 by Princ Borivoj of the house of Premyslides.
In the medieval times the castle side was fortifed with a moat and rampart of clay and stones.

The first walled building was the church of Our Lady. Other churches, dedicated to St. George and St. Vitus, were founded in the first half of the 10th century.
From the 10th century Prague Castle was not only the seat of the head of state, the princes and later kings, but also of the highest representative of church, the Prague bishop. The first convent in Bohemia was also founded in the grounds of Prague Castle, a convent next to the church of St. George for the order of Benedictine nuns.
The period of the rule of King and later Emperor Charles IV. (the middle of the 14th century) was a time of prosperity for Prague Castle, for then it first became an imperial residence, the seat of the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. The royal palace was magnificently rebuilt and the fortifications strengthened. Building began on the Gothic church of St. Vitus on the model of French cathedrals.

The adaptation of the Castle came to its height in the second half of the 16th century, during the rule of Rudolph II. The emperor settled permanently in Prague Castle and began to turn it into a grand and dignified centre of the empire. And he founded the northern wing of the palace, with today's Spanish Hall, to house his precious artistic and scientific collections.
The Prague defenestration in 1618 started a long period of wars, during which Prague Castle was damaged and robbed. It was used by the country's ruler only exceptionally and temporily
In the second half of the 18th century the last great rebuilding of the Castle was carried out, making it a prestigious castle-type seat. But at that time the capital or the empire was Vienna, and Prague was just a provincial town. The Castle gradually became dilapidated and its art treasures were impoverished by the sale of the remains of the Emperor Rudolph's collections.

Charles Bridge

It is the Oldest bridge in Prague and also one of the most beautiful on the world.
Originally called Stone bridge or Prague bridge and from 1870 Karluv Most (Charles Bridge). On his place was originally Roman bridge, called after wife of King Vratislav I. (1140-1172) bridge of Judita. It was built 1158-1171 and in year 1272 was seriously damaget by flood and the rest of the bridge was taken down by the ice, wood and other things which was bring by another flood in year 1342. It was considered that time like national disaster.
July 9th 1357 in 5 am 31 min the king Charles IV (Karel IV) laid the basic stone of the new bridge. The date and time was pick by the Kings astrogist as the best time for the new project. (conjuct between the Sun and Saturn)
The bridge is long 520 m, wide 10 m. The Charles Bridge was used until 20th century as very important way between the Old Town of Prague (Stare mesto) and Lesser Town (Mala Strana) on which were carry goods, and people.

St. Vitus's Cathedral (Chram Svateho Vita)

St. Vitus's Cathedral is the most important munument in Czech republic. Apart from divine services the coronations of Czech kings and queens also took place in it. The remains of provincial patron saints, sovereigns, noblemen and archbishops are interred here. About the year 925 Prince Vaclav I founded a Romanesque rotunda here which after 1060 was converted into a triple-naved basilica with two steeples. The importance of the cathedral grew especially after the establishment of the Prague bishopric in 973 and the founding of the body of canons - the St. Vitus chapter, which later became an important cultural and administrative institution. In 1344 Charles IV began the construction of a Gothic cathedral. Its first builders, Matthias of Arras and later Peter Parler, built the choir with a ring of chapels, St. Wenceslas's Chapel, the Golden Portal and the lower part of the main steeple. In spite of the endeavours of some sovereigns to secure the continuation of the construction work the cathedral remained uncompleted for whole centuries.The main steeple was crowned with a Renaissance helmet and the music choir was built. The facade of the cathedral was provisionally closed. It was not until the latter half of the 19th century that the Union for the Completion of the Building of St. Vitus's Cathedral began the repair of the original part and the completion of the building of the cathedral in Neo-Gothic style. The cathedral was solemnly consecrated in 1929. Its interior was subjected to adaptations even in later years. Visitors enter the cathedral through the portal in the western facade, opposite the passage-way between the Second and Third Courtyards of Prague Castle. Its bronze door is decorated with reliefs with scenes from the history of the cathedral and from the legends about St.Wenceslas and St. Adalbert.

The Neo-Gothic part of the cathedral consists of the main nave and the narrow side aisles, lined with chapels, and the northern wing of the transverse nave. The chapels have stained glass windows. The construction of the large southern steeple was started by Peter Parler, but he did not complete it. It gained its originally planned height after being provided with a Renaissance helmet in the 16th century. St. Wenceslas's Chapel partly reaches on to the area of the transverse nave. The different conception of its architecture and its magnificent decoration emphasize its importance as the central point of the cathedral as a whole. The solemn entrance to the cathedral, the Golden Portal, affords access to the chapel from the Third Courtyard.